Investigating the magnitude and drivers of...

In the News

Study establishes link between gender, extramarital affairs and HIV

Dar es Salaam. A new Ifakara Health Institute study has found “a significant association between lifetime (proxy) extramarital affairs and HIV infection among women only,” with the risk being significantly …

IHI names winners of research, innovation fund

[Right-Left] Getrud, Beatrice, Theckla, and Tutu.Ifakara Health Institute (IHI) has named recipients of the 2017/18 Director’s Research and Innovation Fund. This is an internal funding mechanism aimed to support specific …

Recent Projects

Development of a new tool for malaria mosquito surveillance to improve vector control

Malaria transmission is influenced not only by vector abundance, but as well by demographic traits such as vector species and age structure, as these influence the intensity by which the …

Demonstrating complete disruption of residual malaria transmission by eliminating Anopheles funestus mosquitoes from rural Tanzanian villages

In rural south-eastern Tanzania, where malaria prevalence has reduced by >60% since 2000, low-to-moderate transmission still persists despite very high coverage with long-lasting insecticidal bednets. Like in most residual transmission …

Investigating the magnitude and drivers of residual malaria transmission in Zanzibar

The global malaria burden has dramatically decreased in recent years, with at least four million fewer deaths today compared to 2001. WHO has estimated that between 2000 and 2015, the annual rate of new malaria cases dropped by 37% globally, and malaria death rates fell by 60% (WHO 2015). Current vector control practices, notably long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) have contributed approximately 78% of these gains (Bhatt et al 2015). In many settings, low-level residual transmission now persists even where LLIN and IRS coverage already exceeds 80%. The widespread lack of accurate data on extents and drivers of this residual transmission compound this problem. In Zanzibar, including Pemba and Unguja Islands, malaria prevalence rates are now so low (last estimates <1% in both Unguja and Pemba), that the country can feasibly aim for elimination. Field evidence suggests the few remaining cases are focalized and coincident with areas having high vector abundance, or where residents have recently travelled to mainland Tanzania. A comprehensive understanding of dynamics of residual transmission, and associated factors, would be immensely useful in guiding the end-game operations in Zanzibar. It is essential to exhaustively investigate the actual magnitude of the residual malaria transmission, and characterize it on the basis of where and when it occurs, as well as its main environmental and anthropological determinants. The main objective of this study is therefore to quantify and characterize existing residual Plasmodium transmission in communities where LLINs and IRS are already widely used, but where transmission still persists, in Zanzibar. In the short-term, we will deliver a set of profiles and quantification of residual malaria transmission and its associated determinants in selected sites in Zanzibar. This information will inform improved targeting of the remaining malaria

Lead Scientists:

Samson Kiware

Brian Tarimo

Kimberly Mihayo

April Monroe

Fredros Okumu


Johns Hopkins University



Projects Location

© Ifakara Health Institute (IHI), 2016