Investigating the magnitude and drivers of...

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Vacancy: Environmental Scientist required (1 post)

(Dar es Salaam, July 23 2019) IHI is looking for an experienced Environmental Scientist with analytical chemistry skills to join the Bohemia project team around November/December this year. Please note …

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Recent Projects

Calcium supplementation on pregnant women

Project summary This is a trial-based study funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. It intends to generate evidence for decision-making on the potential non-inferiority of a lower dose …

Sustainable, Healthy, Learning Cities and Neighbourhoods

The Sustainable, Healthy, Learning Cities and Neighbourhoods is an exciting project in which IHI works with a consortium of partners from Asia and Africa to 1) develop capacity for improved …

Investigating the magnitude and drivers of residual malaria transmission in Zanzibar

The global malaria burden has dramatically decreased in recent years, with at least four million fewer deaths today compared to 2001. WHO has estimated that between 2000 and 2015, the annual rate of new malaria cases dropped by 37% globally, and malaria death rates fell by 60% (WHO 2015). Current vector control practices, notably long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) have contributed approximately 78% of these gains (Bhatt et al 2015). In many settings, low-level residual transmission now persists even where LLIN and IRS coverage already exceeds 80%. The widespread lack of accurate data on extents and drivers of this residual transmission compound this problem. In Zanzibar, including Pemba and Unguja Islands, malaria prevalence rates are now so low (last estimates <1% in both Unguja and Pemba), that the country can feasibly aim for elimination. Field evidence suggests the few remaining cases are focalized and coincident with areas having high vector abundance, or where residents have recently travelled to mainland Tanzania. A comprehensive understanding of dynamics of residual transmission, and associated factors, would be immensely useful in guiding the end-game operations in Zanzibar. It is essential to exhaustively investigate the actual magnitude of the residual malaria transmission, and characterize it on the basis of where and when it occurs, as well as its main environmental and anthropological determinants. The main objective of this study is therefore to quantify and characterize existing residual Plasmodium transmission in communities where LLINs and IRS are already widely used, but where transmission still persists, in Zanzibar. In the short-term, we will deliver a set of profiles and quantification of residual malaria transmission and its associated determinants in selected sites in Zanzibar. This information will inform improved targeting of the remaining malaria

Lead Scientists:

Samson Kiware

Brian Tarimo

Kimberly Mihayo

April Monroe

Fredros Okumu


Johns Hopkins University



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